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Suggested Reading for the Georgia DUI Attorney

Georgia DUI Blood Alcohol Testing Issues for DUI Experts Anthony, R.M., Sutheimer, C.A., and Sunshine, I. Acetaldehyde, Methanol, and Ethanol Analysis by Headspace Gas-Chromatography. JAT 4: 43-45, 1980 Caplan, Y., and Levine, B. The Analysis of Ethanol in Serum, Blood, and Urine, A Comparison of the TDx REA Ethanol Analysis with Gas Chromatography.

JAT10:49-52, 1986 Cary, P.L., Whitter, P.D., and Johnson, C.A. abbot Radiative Attenuation Method for Quantifying Ethanol Evaluated and Compared With Gas-Liquid Chromatography and the Du Pont ACA. Clin. Chem. 30: 1867-1870, 1984 Charlebois, R.C., Corbett, M.R., and Wigmore, J.G. Comparison of Ethanol Concentrations in Blood, Serum, and Blood Cells for Forensic Application.  JAT 20: 171-178, 1996 Chiarotti, M., and De Giovanni, N.  Acetaldehyde Accumulation During Headspace Gas Chromatographic Determination of Ethanol.  Forens. Sci. Int. 20:21-25, 1982 Dick, G.L. and Stone, H.M., Alcohol Loss Arising From Microbial Contamination of Drivers’ Blood Specimens. Forens. Sci. Int. 34: 17-27, 1987 Jones, A.W. Measuring Alcohol in Blood and Breath for Forensic Purposes- A Historical Review.  Forens. Sci. Rev. 8: 13-44, 1996 Miller, B.A., Day, S.M., Vasquez, T.E., and Evans, F.M. Absence of Salting Out Effects in Forensic Blood Alcohol Determination at Various Concentrations of Sodium Fluoride Using Semi-Automated Headspace Gas Chromatography. Sci. Just. 44(2): 73-76, 2004 Miller, M.A., Rosin, A., Levsky, M.E., Patel, M.M., Gregory, T.J.D. , and Crystal, C.S.,

Does the Clinical Use of Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizers Elevate Blood Alcohol Levels?  A Prospective Study, J. Emerg. Med., 24: 815-817, 2006 Ogden, E.J.D., Gerstner-Stevens, J., Burke, J., and Young, S.J. Venous Blood Alcohol Sampling and the Alcohol Swab. Police Surg. 42: 4-5, 1992 Peek, G.J., Marsh, A., Keating, J., Ward, R.J., and Peters, T.J.  The Effects of Swabbing the Skin on Apparent Blood Ethanol Concentrations.  Alcohol, Alcohol, 25: 639-640, 1990  Riley, D., Wigmore, J.G., and Yen, B. Dilution of Blood Collected for Medicolegal Alcohol Analysis by Intravenous Fluids.  JAT 20: 330-331, 1996. Senkowski, C.M., and Thompson, K.A. The Accuracy of Blood Alcohol Analysis Using Automated Headspace Gas Chromatography When Performed in Clotted Samples.  J. Forensic Sci. 35: 176-180, 1990. Slama, G., Bruzzo, F., Dupeyron, J.P., Lassechere, M., and Dauchy, F.  Ketone Bodies Do Not Give a Falsely High Positive Alcohol Tests.  Diabetic Med. 6: 142-143, 1989. Wigmore, J.G., and Elliot, M., Serum, Blood, and Breath Alcohol Results in a Case of Impaired Driving Causing Bodily Harm. Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 37(4): 223-227, 2004 Winek, C.L., and Carfagna, M. Comparison of Plasma, Serum, and Whole Blood Ethanol Concentrations. JAT 11: 267-268, 1987 Winek, C.L., Wahba, W.W., Windisch, R.M., and Winek Jr, C.L. Serum Alcohol Concentrations in Trauma Patients Determined by Immunoassays Versus Gas Chromatography. Forensic Sci. Int. 139: 1-3, 2004 Winek, T., Winek, C.L., and Wahba, W.W. The Effect of Storage at Various Temperatures on Blood Alcohol Concentration. Forensic Sci. Int. 78: 179-185, 1996. Zittel, D.B., and Hardin, G.G.  Comparison of Blood Ethanol Concentrations in Samples Simultaneously Collected Into Expired and Unexpired Venipuncture Tubes  JAT, 30: 317-318, 2006

Georgia DUI Breath Alcohol Testing Issues for DUI Experts

 O’Connell, O., and Beckett, L., Asthmatics:  Too Drunk to Drive?  The Time Curve of Exhaled Ethanol Levels After the Use of Salamol in Normal Subjects, N.Z. Med. J., 119(1244): 5pp, October 27, 2006, Caldwell, J.P., and Kim, N.D., The Response of the Intoxilyzer 5000 to Five Potential Interfering Substances. J. Forensic Sci. 42: 1080-1087, 1997 Chow, B.L.C., and Wigmore, J.G., Technical Note:  The Stability of Aqueous Alcohol Standard Use in Breath Alcohol Testing After Twenty-Six Years Storage, Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 38(1): 21-24, 2005 Cooper, S., Infrared Breath Alcohol Analysis Following Inhalation of Gasoline Fumes. JAT 5: 198-199, 1981 Dubowski, K.M., and Essary, N.A. Measurement of Low Breath-Alcohol Concentrations:  Laboratory Studies and Field Experience. JAT 23: 386-395, 1999. Dubowski, K.M., Goodson, E.E., and Sample Jr. M.  Storage Stability of Simulator Ethanol Solutions for Vapor-Alcohol Control Tests in Breath-Alcohol Analysis.  JAT 26: 406-410, 2002  Gomm, P.J., Osselton, M.D. Broster, C.G., Johnson, N. Mcl., and Upton, K.  The Effect of Salbutamol on Breath Alcohol Testing in Alcoholics.  Med. Sci. Law, 31: 226-228, 1991. Gullberg, R.G., The Elimination Rate of Mouth Alcohol:  Mathematical Modeling and Implications in Breath Alcohol Analysis.  J. Forensic Sci. 37: 1363-1372, 1992. Gullberg, R.G. Methodology and Quality Assurance in Forensic Breath Alcohol Analysis. Forensic Sci. Rev. 12: 49-68, 2000 Gullberg, R.G., Determining the Air/Water Partition Coefficient to Employ When Calibrating Forensic Breath Alcohol Test Instruments, Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 38: 205-212, 2005 Gullberg, R.G., and Logan, B.K., Results of a Proposed Breath Alcohol Proficiency Test Program., J. Forensic Sci., 51: 168-172, 2006 Harding, P.M., Laessig, R.H., and Field, P.H. Field Performance of the Intoxilyzer 5000: A Comparison of Blood- and Breath- Alcohol Results in Wisconsin Drivers. J. Forensic Sci. 35: 1022-1028, 1990 Harding, P.M., McMurray, M.C., Laessig, R.H., Simnley II, D.O., Correll, P.J., and Tsunehiro, J.K.  The Effects of Dentures and Denture Adhesives on Mouth Alcohol Retention.  J. Forensic Sci. 37: 999-107, 1992 Hurst, T.S., Ability of Subjects With Impaired Respiratory Function to Provide a Satisfactory Breath Sample for the Alcotest 7410 Breath Alcohol Device. Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 31: 269-274, 1998 ImObersteg, A.D., King, A., Carema, M., and Mulrine, E., The Effects of Occupational Exposure to Paint Solvents on the Intoxilyzer 5000:  A Field Study [Letter], JAT 17: 254-255, 1993. Jones, A.W. Breath Acetone Concentrations in Fasting Healthy Med:  Response of Infrared Breath Alcohol Analyzers.  JAT 11: 67-69, 1987 Jones, A.W. Medicolegal Alcohol Determinations- Blood or Breath Alcohol Concentrations?  Forensic Sci. Rev. 12: 23-47, 2000 Jones, A.W., and Andersson, L. Variability of the Blood/Breath Alcohol Ratio in Drinking Drivers. J. Forensic Sci. 41: 916-921, 1996 Laakso, O., Pennanen, T., Himberg, K., Kuitunen, T., and Himberg, J.J.  Effect of Eight Solvents on Ethanol Analysis by Draeger 7110 Evidential Breath Analyzer. J. Forensic Sci. 49(5): 1113-1116, 2004 Langille, R.M. and Wigmore, J.G., The Mouth Alcohol Effect After a Mouthful of Beer Under Social Conditions. Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 33: 193-198, 2000. Logan, B.K. and Distefano, S.  Ethanol Content of Various Foods and Soft Drinks and Their Potential for Interference With a Breath-Alcohol Test. JAT 22: 181-188, 1998 Logan, B.K., Distefano, S., and Case, G.A. Evaluation of the Effect of Asthma Inhalers and Nasal Decongestant Sprays on a Breath Alcohol Test. J. Forensic Sci. 43: 197-199, 1998. Moore, R.L., and Gullien, J.  The Effect of Breath Freshener Strips on Two Types of Breath Alcohol Testing Instruments. J. Forensic Sci. 49(4): 829-831, 2004 Palmentier, J-P, F.P., Wigmore, J.G., Langille, R.M., and Patrick, J.  Incidence of Invalid Sample Screen Messages on the Intoxilyzer 500C Obtained From Arrested Drinking Drivers in Toronto.  Is a 15 to 20 Minute Wait Period Warranted?  Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J., 101-114, 2006 Parker, K.M. and Green, J.L. Delayed Ethanol Analysis of Breath Specimens:  Long-Term Field Experience With Commercial Silica Gel Tubes and Breathalyzer Collection. J. Forensic Sci. 35: 1353-1359, 1990 Pavlic, M., Grubwieser, P., Brandstatter, A., Libiseller, K., and Rabl, W., A Study Concerning the Blood/Breath Alcohol Conversion Factor Q:  Concentration Dependency and Its Applicability in Daily Routine.  Forensic Sci. Int. 158: 149-15, 2006 Wilkie, M.P., Wigmore, J.G., and Patrick, J.W. The Performance of the Approved Screening Device, the Alcotest 7410 GLC in the Field:  Low Incidence of False-Positive False-PositiveResultspositive results in the Identification of Drinking Drivers.  Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 36(3): 165-171, 2003 Wigmore, J.G., and Bugyra, I.M.  Decreasing the Mouth Alcohol Effect by Increasing Salivary Flow Rate. Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 36: 211-216, 2003 Wigmore, J.G., and Leslie, G.M. The Effect of Swallowing or Rinsing Alcohol Solution on the Mouth Alcohol Effect and Slope Detection of the Intoxilyzer 5000.  Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 112-114, 2001 Wigmore, J.G. and Wilkie, M.P. A Simulation of the Effect of Blood in the Mouth on Breath Alcohol Concentrations of Drinking Subjects. Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 35: 9-16, 2002

Georgia DUI Impairment of Driving Ability Issues for DUI Experts Adachi, J., Mizoi, Y., Funkunaga, T. Ogawa, Y., Ueno, Y., and Imamichi, H. Degrees of Alcohol Intoxication in 117 Hospitalized Cases. J. Stud. Alc. 52: 448-453, 1991 Andre, J.T. Visual Functioning in Challenging Conditions:  Effects of Alcohol Consumption, Luminance, Stimulus Motion, and Glare on Contrast Sensitivity. J. Exp. Psychol. Appl. 2: 250-269, 1996 Antebi, D.,  The Effects of Alcohol on Four Choice Serial Reaction Time.  Med. Sci. Law, 22: 181-188, 1982. Arnedt, J.T., Wilde, G.J.S., and MacLean A.W.  How do Prolonged Wakefulness and Alcohol Compare in the Decrements They Produce on a Simulated Driving Task?  Accid. Anal. Prevent. 33: 337-344, 2001. Beirness, D.J., and Vogel-Sprott, M.D., Does Prior Skill Reduce Alcohol-Induced Impairment.  J. Stud. Alc. 43: 1149-1156, 1982  Borkenstein, R.F., Crowther, R.F., Schumate, R.P., and Zylman, R., The Role of the Drinking Driver in Traffic Accidents:  The Grand Rapids Study, Blutalkohol 11(suppl 1): 1-131, 1974. Flanagan, N.G., Strike, P.W., Rigby, C.J., and Lochridge, G.  The Effect of Low Doses of Alcohol on Driving Performance. Med. Sci. Law, 22: 203-208, 1983. Desapriya, E.B.R., Iwase, N., Brussoni, M., Shimizu, S., and Belayneh, T.N., International Policies on Alcohol Impaired Driving:  Are Legal Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Limits in Motorized Countries Compatible With Scientific Evidence?  Jpn. J. Alcohol Drug Dependence, 38(2): 83-102, 2003 Katoh, Z. Slowing Effects of Alcohol on Voluntary Eye Movements.  Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 59: 606-610, 1988 King, A.C., and Byars, J.A. Alcohol-Induced Performance Impairment in Heavy Episodic and Light Social Drinkers. J. Stud. Alc. 65: 27-36, 2004 Laurell, H. Effects of Small Doses of Alcohol on Driver Performance in Emergency Traffic Situations.  Accid. Anal. Prev. 9: 191-201, 1977 McKnight, A.J., Langston, E.A., McKnight, A.S., and Lange, J.E.  Sobriety Tests for Low Blood Alcohol Concentrations.  Accid. Anal. Prevent. 34: 305-311, 2002 Miller, R.J. Ingested Ethanol as a Factor in Double Vision.  Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 654: 489-491, 1992.  Perper, J.A., Twerski, A., and Wienand, J.W. Tolerance at High Blood Alcohol Concentrations:  A Study of 110 Cases and Review of Literature. J. Forensic Sci. 31: 212-221, 1986 Stuster, J., Validation of the Standardized Field Sobriety Test Battery at 0.08% Blood Alcohol Concentration, Human Factors, 48(3): 608-614, 2006 Wagenaar, A.C., and Maldonado-Molina,M.M., Effects of Drivers’ License Suspension Policies on Alcohol-Related Crash Involvement:  Long-Term Follow-Up in Forty-Six States, Alcoholism, Clin. Exp. Res., 31(8): 1399-1406, 2007 Zador, P.L., Krawchuik, S.A., and Voas, R.B.  Alcohol-Related Relative Risk of Driver Fatalities and Driver Impairment in Fatal Crashes in Relation to Driver Age and Gender:  An Update Using 1996 Data.  J. Stud. Alc. 61: 387-395, 2000.

Georgia DUI Miscellaneous Issue Regarding Alcohol Intoxication Issues for DUI Experts
Al-Awadhi, A., Wasfi, I.A., and Al-Hatali, Z., Autobrewing Revisited:  Endogenous Concentrations of Blood Ethanol in Residents of the United Arab Emirates. Sci. Just. 44(3): 149-152, 2004 Andreasson, R., and Jones, A.W., Erik M.P. Widmark (1889-1945):  Swedish Pioneer in Forensic Alcohol Toxicology. Forensic Sci. Int. 72: 1-14, 1995 Gill, J.S., and Donaghy, M. Variation in the Alcohol Content of a Drink of Wine and Spirit Poured by a Sample of the Scotish Population.  Health Ed. Res. 19(5): 485-491, 2004   Hawthorne, J.S., and Woicik, M.H.  Transdermal Alcohol Measurement:  A Review of the Literature.  Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 39(2): 65-71, 2006  Logan, B.K., and Jones, A.W. Endogenous Ethanol Auto-Brewery Syndrome as a Drunk-Driving Defence Challenge. Med. Sci. Law, 40: 206-215, 2000 Lucas, D.M.  Professor Robert F. Borkenstein- An Appreciation of his Life and Work. Forens. Sci. Rev. 12: 1-21, 2000 Martin, T.L., Wigmore, J.G., and Woodall, K.L., A Comparison of Blood Alcohol Concentrations Estimated From Drinking Histories of Drivers Charged with Over 80 and Their Intoxilyzer 5000C Results. Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 37(4): 187-195, 2004 Moskowitz, H., Marcelline Burns, and Ferguson, S. Police Officers’ Detection of Breath Odors from Alcohol Ingestion.  Accid. Anal. Prevent. 31: 175-180, 1999 Narkiewicz, K., Cooley, R.L., and Somers, V.K.  Alcohol Potentiates Orthostatic Hypotension:  Implications for Alcohol-Related Syncope.  Circulation, 101: 398-402, 2000 Perry, P.J.,. Argo, T.R., Barnett, M.J., Liesveld, J.L., Liskow, B., Hernan,J.M., Trinka, M.G., and Brabson, M.A. The Association of Alcohol Induced Blackouts and Grayouts to Blood Alcohol Concentrations, J. Forens. Sci., 51(4): 896-899, 2006 Wansink, B., and van Itterson, K., Shape of Glass and Amount of Alcohol Poured:  Comparative Study of Effect of Practice and Concentration.  BMJ, 331: 1512-1514, 2005 White, A.M., Signer, M.L., Kraus, C.L., and Swartzwelder, H.S., Experiential Aspects of Alcohol-Induced Blackouts Among College Students  Am J. Drug Alc. Abuse, 30(1): 205-224, 2004 Wigmore, J.G., House, C.J., and Patrick, J.W., Characteristics of Arrested Drinking Drivers With the Highest Intoxilyzer 5000C Results in Toronto:  Drinking and Driving Not only at Night or on Weekends.  Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 37(1): 1-8, 2004 Georiga DUI Issues: Pharmacokinetics for the DUI Expert  Brennan, D.F., Betzelos, S., Reed, R., and Falk, J. Ethanol Elimination Rates in an ED Population.  Am. J. Emerg. Med. 13: 276-280, 1995. Brown, A. St. J.M., and Manes, P.F.W.  Omeprazole, Ranitidine, and Cimetidine Have no Effect on Peak Blood Ethanol Concentrations, First Pass Metabolism, or Area Under the Time-Ethanol Curve Under Real-Life Conditions.  Aliment. Pharmacol. Pherap. 12: 141-145, 1998 Cowan, J.M., Dennis III, M.E., and Smith, L.F., A Comparison of Equal Alcohol Doses of Beer and Whiskey on Eleven Human Test Subjects. Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 37(3): 137-174, 2004 Ferreira, S.M., de Mello, M.T., Rossi, M.V., and Souza-Formigoni, M.L.O., Effects of Energy Drink on Alcohol Intoxication.  Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 30(4): 598-605, 2006 Forrest, A.R.W.  The Estimation of Widmark’s Factor, Forensic Sci. Soc. J. 26: 249-252, 1986 Friel, P.N., Logan, B.K., and Baer, J. An Evaluation of the Reliability of Widmark Calculations Based on Breath Alcohol Measurements. J. Forensic Sci. 40: 91-94, 1995 Ganert, P.M. and Bowthorpe, W.D.  Evaluation of Breath Alcohol Profiles Following a Period of Social Drinking. Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 33: 137-143, 2000 Gengo, F.M., Gabos, C., Straley, C., and Manning, C. The Pharmacodynamics of Ethanol:  Effects on Performance and Judgment. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 30: 748-754, 1990  Gullberg, R.G.  Employing Simulated Data to Illustrate an Important Cause of the Steepling Effect in Breath Alcohol Analysis.  Med. Sci. Law, 34: 321-323, 1994. Gullberg, R.G. Estimating the Uncertainty Associated With Widmark’s Equation as Commonly Applied in Forensic Toxicology, Forensic Sci. Int., 172: 33-39, 2007 Gullberg, R.G., and Jones, A.W.  Guidelines for Estimating the Amount of Alcohol Consumed From a Single Measurement of Blood Alcohol Concentration:  Re-Evaluation of Widmark’s Equation.  Forensic Sci. Int. 69: 119-130, 1994 Hahn, R.G., Norberg, A., Gabrielsson, J., Danielsson, A., and Jones, A.W. Eating a Meal Increases the Clearance of Ethanol Given by Intravenous Infusion.  Alcohol, Alcohol, 29: 873-877, 1994. Jackson, P.R., Tucker, G.T., and Woods, H.F. Backtracking Booze With Bayes- The Retrospective Interpretation of Blood Alcohol Data.  Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 31: 55-63, 1991 Jones, A.W. Disappearance Rate of Ethanol from the Blood of Human Subjects:  Implications in Forensic Toxicology. J. Forensic Sci. 38: 104-118, 1993. Jones, A.W., and Andersson, L.  Comparison of Ethanol Concentrations in Venous Blood and End-Expired Breath During Controlled Drinking Study.  Forensic Sci. Int. 132: 18-25, 2003 Jones, A.W., and Jonsson, K.A., Food-Induced Lowering of Blood-Ethanol Profiles and Increased Rate of Elimination Immediately After a Meal.  J. Forensic Sci. 39: 1084-1093, 1994 Jones, A.W., Lindberg, L., and Olsson, S-G., Magnitude and Time-Course of Arterio-Venous Differences in Blood Alcohol Concentration in Healthy Men., Clin. Pharmacokinetics, 43(15): 1157-1166, 2004 Jones, A.W., Wigmore, J.G.,  and House, C.J.  The Course of the Blood-Alcohol Curve After Consumption of Large Amounts of Alcohol Under Realistic Conditions  Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J., 39(3): 125-140, 2006 Katona, B.G., Siegel, E.G., Roberts, J.R., Fant, W.K., and Hassen, M. The Effects of Superactive Charcoal and Magnesium Citrate Solution on Blood Ethanol Concentrations and Area Under the Curve in Humans.  Clin. Toxicol. 27: 129-137, 1989 Li, J., Mills, T., and Erator R., Intravenous Saline has no Effect on Blood Ethanol Clearance. J. Emerg. Med. 17: 1-5, 1999. Miller,M.A.,Rosin, A., and Crystal, C.S., Alcohol Based Hand Sanitizer:  Can Frequent Use Cause an Elevated Blood Alcohol Level?  Am. J> Infect. Control, 34: 150-151, 2006 Olsen, H., Sakshaug, J., Duckert, F., Stromme, J.H., and Morland, J. Ethanol Elimination-Rates Determined by Breath Analysis as a Marker of Recent Excessive Ethanol Consumption.  Scand. J. Clin. Lab.Invest. 49: 359-365, 1989 Pollack Jr., C.V., Jorden, R.C., Carlton, F.B., and Baker, M.L. Gastric Emptying in the Acutely Inebriated Patient. J. Emerg. Med. 10: 1-5, 1992 Roberts, C., and Robinson, S.P., Alcohol Concentration and Carbonation of Drinks:  The Effect on Blood Alcohol Levels, J. Forensic Legal Medicine, 14: 398-405, 2007 Seidl, S., Jensen, U., and Alt, A.  The Calculation of Blood Ethanol Concentrations in Males and Females.  Int. J. Leg. Med. 114: 71-77, 2000 Tam, T.W.M., Yang, C.T., Fung, W.K., and Mok, V.K.K., Alcohol Metabolism of Local Chinese in Hong Kong:  A Statistical Determination of the Effects of Various Physiological Factors. Forensic Sci. Int. 156: 95-101, 2006

Georgia DUI Postmortem Alcohol Issues for DUi Experts
Backer, R.C., Pisano, P.V., and Sopher, I.M.  The Comparison of Alcohol Concentrations in Postmortem Fluids and Tissues.  J. Forens. Sci. 25: 327-331. Bonventre, J., Vcalanju, S., and Bastos, M.L. Evaluation of Ethanol Analysis on Brain and Liver by Head-space Gas Chromatography. Forens. Sci. Int. 19: 75-83, 1982 Budd, R.D.  Validity of Post Mortem Chest Cavity Blood Ethanol Determinations. J. Chromatog. 449: 337-340, 1988. De Martinis, B.S., de Paula, C.M.C., Braga, A. Moreira, H.T., and Martine, C.C.S.,  Alcohol Distribution in Different Postmortem Body Fluids.  Human Exp. Toxicol. 25: 83-97, 2006 Harper, D.R.  A Comparative Study of the Microbiological Contamination of Postmortem Blood and Vitreous Humor Samples Taken for Ethanol Determination.  Forensic Sci. Int. 43: 37-44, 1989. Johnson, R.D., Lewis, R.J., Canfield, D.V., and Blank, C.L. Accurate Assignment of Ethanol Origin in Postmortem Urine:  Liquid Chromatographic- Mas Spectrometric Determination of Serotonin Metabolites. J. Chromat. B. 805: 223-234, 2004 Jones, A.W., and Holmgren, P. Uncertainty in Estimating Blood Ethanol Concentrations by Analysis of Vitreous Humor.  J. Clin. Pathol. 54: 699-702, 2001 Moriya, F., and Hasimoto, Y., Postmortem Production of Ethanol and n-Propanol in the Brain of Drowned Persons. Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 35: 131-133, 2004 Moriya, F., Hashimoto, Y., Furumiya, J., and Nishoika, S., Effects of Perimortem Physical Factors Associated With Death on Exogenous Ethanol Concentrations in Cardiac Blood.,  Legal Med. 7: 213-216, 2005  Nanikawa, R. Medicolegal Aspects on Alcohol Detected in Dead Bodies. Acta Med. Leg. Soc. 30: 109-110, 1980 Olsen, T., and Hearn, W.L.  Stability of Ethanol in Postmortem Blood and Vitreous Humor in Long-Term Refrigerated Storage.  JAT, 27: 517-519, 2003 O’Neal, C.L., Wolff II, C.E., Levine, B., Kunsman, G., and Poklis, A. Gas Chromatographic Procedures for Determination of Ethanol in Postmortem Blood Using T-Butanol and Methyl Ethyl Ketone as Internal Standards. Forensic Sci. Int. 83: 31-38, 1996. Sylvester, P.A., Wong, N.A.C.S., Warren, B.F., and Ranson, D. Unacceptably High Site Variability in Postmortem Blood Alcohol Analysis. J. Clin. Pathol. 51: 250-252, 1998 Wigmore, J.G. and Chow, B.L.C. Case Report:  Detection of Neo-Formation of Ethanol in a Postmortem Blood Sample Using N-Propanol and a Urine Sample. Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 33: 145-149, 2000 Winek Jr., C.L., Winek, C.L., and Wahba, W.W. The Role of Trauma in Postmortem Blood Alcohol Determination.  Forensic Sci. Int. 71: 1-8, 1995 Wu, Y-L., Guo, H-R., and Lin, J-J., Fatal Alcohol Immersion During the SARS Epidemic in Taiwan. Forensic Sci. Int. 149: 2005 Georgia DUI Urine Alcohol Testing Issues for DUI Experts

Bendtsen, P., and Jones, A.W. Impact of Water-Induced Diuresis on Excretion Profiles of Ethanol, Urinary Creatinine and Urinary Osmolality. JAT 23: 565-569, 1999 Iffland, R., and Jones, A.W.  Evaluating Alleged Drinking After Driving- the Hip Flask Defence.  Part 1:  Double Blood Samples and Urine to Blood Alcohol Relationship.  Med. Sci. Law, 42: 207-224, 2002.  Jones, A.W., Excretion of Alcohol in Urine and Diuresis in Healthy Men in Relation to Their Age, the Dose Administered and the Time After Drinking. Forensic Sci. Int. 45: 217-224, 1990. Jones, A.W. Reference Limits for Urine/Blood Ratios of Ethanol in Two Successive Voids From Drinking Drivers. JAT 26: 333-339, 2002 Jones, A.W., Hylen, L., Svensson, E., and Helander, A. Storage of Specimens at 4C or Addition of Sodium Fluoride (1%) Prevents Formation of Ethanol in Urine Inoculated with Candida albicans. JAT 23: 333-336, 1999 Sulkowski, H.A., Wu, A.H.B., and McCarter, Y.S.  In-Vitro Production of Ethanol in Urine by Fermentation.  J. Forensic Sci. 40: 990-993, 1995